Located in the south of Hubei, known as "the South Gate of Hubei", Xianning has great renown for “Chibi old haunt of the Three Kingdoms, inland nuclear power city”, which has great advantages of its "mountain", "water" "geography","location","culture","scenery","energy"and the trend of development. Xianning is a suitable place to do business, to live and to visit, and also a city full of strength , vitality, and charm.
Xianning is an open city with convenient transportation. Xianning is located in Central China hinterland, to the south bank of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River，and at the joint center of three provinces of Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi ,with its east to the north of Jiangxi, south to Hunan, west facing Jingchu, and north to Wuhan. It’s about 1000 kilometers by air from different metropolitans like Beijing, Shanghai,Guangzhou and Chengdu to Xianning-the core city of Wuhan city circle. It has the advantage of convenient transportation.
Beijing-Guangzhou Railway, Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway, State Road 106 and 107,Hang-Rui Expressway and Daguang Expressway which is being constructed run through the city. Across the territory, the 138-kilometre-long golden waterway of the Yangtze River flows to the east. The will-be-on Wu-Guang high speed railway makes it only 15 minutes from Xianning to Wuhan, only 3 hours to Guangzhou. The expressway and Wuhan-Xianning intercity railway, which will be started, makes it more convenient from Xianning to Wuhan. With the advantages of wonderful location and convenient transportation, Xianning becomes the confluence of Wuhan city circle and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city group "two-type society" construction，the crucial base of Hubei to undertake coastal industrial transfer, the important growing point of Hubei to emerge quickly in the central part.
Xianning is a cultural city with a long history. During the Spring and Autumn period, Xianning belonged to Chu while Chu was powerful in the Central Plains. During the Qin dynasty, Xianning was under the jurisdiction of Nanjun County. At the end of the East Han dynasty when ambitious groups fought for the power, Xianning became a strategic point, forming a situation of tripartite confrontation. During the New Democratic Revolution period, it was also an important part of the Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi Revolutionary Base. The county system of Xianning dated from the West Han dynasty, which has 2200 years of history till now. In December of 1998, Xianning City was founded after Xianning Prefecture was removed. Now it is a city with a population of 2.86 million, covering an area of 9861 square kilometers, administering one district, four counties, one city and one provincial development zone. That is Xian’an District, Jiayu County, Tongcheng County, Chongyang County, Tongshan County, Chibi City and Xianning Economic Development Zone. Xianning has profound cultural heritages. Two different religions Buddhism and Taoism exist at Jiugong Mountain. The hometown of the three plants is in Mufu. The Shang dynasty bronze drums were discovered in Chongyang. The Tea Horse Road dating from the prosperous Tang dynasty is in Yangloudong. Different cultures have their own characteristics such as the culture of the Three Kingdoms in Chibi, the culture of King Chuang at Mount Jiugong, the culture of the Northern Expedition in Tingsiqiao, the culture of Anti-Japanese War at Tianyueguan in Tongcheng, the culture of Xiangyanghu Lake in Xian’an. During the Revolutionary War period, the proletarian revolutionaries of the older generation like PengDehuai, LuoRonghuan, LiXiannian once fought in South Hubei. WangShijie, QianYishi, QianYing and other Chinese elites were born here. In the 1960s, totally 6000 cultural celebrities including BingXin ShenCongwen,GuoXiaochuan gathered in Xiangyanghu Lake, experiencing country life. Some CPC central leaders JiangZemin,HuYaobang, LiXiannian, HeGuoqiang, ZhuRongji, SongPing, LiLanqing，ZengQinghong, WuGuanzheng have come to inspect Xianning，leaving lots of valuable spiritual wealth.
Xianning is an energy city with rich resources. Xianning is famous as "the land of osmanthus", "the land of bamboo", "the land of ramie", "the land of tea" and "the land of hot springs ".The city's current osmanthus area comes up to more than 50000 mu. The yield and quality of the osmanthus rank the top of the nation. Xianning is also the national flowers and seedlings base approved by the State Forestry Department. Bamboo covers an area of 1.6 million mu, with the amount of 220 million, accounting for over 80% in Hubei Province. Xianning is one of the national three largest ramie bases. Ramie covers an area of 199200 mu. The annual output comes up to more than 28000 tons. Xianning is famous for its tea. Tea garden covers an area of 151900 mu, with the annual output of 16900 tons.
Not only the resources on the land, but also the underground treasures existed in Xianning. Now there are more than 50 varieties of minerals with proved reserves to be exploited. Gold reserves stand second in Hubei Province. Jiayu County has already formed a production scale up to 10000 liang of gold. Marble, granite and other minerals have broad prospects in exploiture. Tongshan County has already exported stone products to the United States, Japan and other 18 countries and regions. The hot springs in Wenquan District is regarded as "the Top Spring of the Central China ", which is rich in more than 10 kinds of minerals such as silver, magnesium and so on, helping to cure many diseases. Xianning has vast superiority of developing hydropower, thermal power, wind power, nuclear power, natural gas energy, pumped storage power, biomass energy and waste recycling. Xianning Nuclear Power Station has entered the construction preparation stage with the investment of nearly 100 billion yuan by Zhongguang Nuclear Power Group. Paizhouwan has obtained important geological results about exploration of oil gas resources, with preliminary prediction of natural gas reserves of 300 billion cubic meters. Puqi Thermal Power Plant with installed capacity of nearly 2 million kilowatts, which was invested nearly 10 billion yuan by Hongkong Huarun Group, will start the construction of the second-period project. During the period of "the Twelfth Five-Year-Plan", Xianning will be built into a "Big Electricity Valley" of the Central China, a "National Demonstration Zone of Clean Energy" and a "National Energy Museum".
Xianning City lies in the transition zone from Mufu Mountains to the Jianghan Plains. Its terrain is high in the southeast and low in the northwest, formed with mountains, hillocks and plains, among which mountainous and hilly areas accounts for 60%, water areas accounts for 10%, cultivated land accounts for 20%,and resident areas accounts for 10%.The total land area of the city comes up to 9861 square kilometers, of which the total arable land areas accounts for 2.917000 million mu. The per capita cultivated land is only 1.05 mu (Statistical data is 0.79 acres), lower than the national average level of 1.55 mu, the provincial per capita level of 1.25 mu. The prominent conflict of more people and less land indicates the present land situation of the city. It seems particularly important to make rational use of land resources and protect arable land.
Non-metallic mineral is the main mineral resources in Xianning and metal mineral is the second. Xianning is short of energy, hydrosphere mineral. 37 kinds of minerals have been discovered, 18 kinds of which have been identified the resources reserves, including 2 kinds of energy minerals , 8 kinds of metal minerals, 7 kinds of non-metallic minerals and a kind of mineral water .The reserves of 11 kinds of mineral resources in our city ranks the top five of the province. Among them, magnesium, antimony monazite, tantalum and geothermal rank first in the province. Gold, niobium and metallurgical dolomite oak rank second. Coal, vanadium and manganese rank fourth.
Xianning is a livable city with a beautiful ecological environment. 52.3% of forest coverage rate makes Xianning the "Natural Oxygen Bar". Good air quality index and green ecological environment has become the sign of Xianning. Xianning has been authorized province-level “civilized city”,“ hygiene city”, “garden city”and one of the national 200 most livable cities. Xianning owns a high prestige with its "beautiful mountains, clear water, fragrant osmanthus, green bamboo, warm springs, and fascinating caves". There are some tourist attractions like Jiugong Mount, Lushuihu Lake, Chibi ancient battlefield of the Three Kingdoms, Taiyi Cave,Yinshui Cave, Bamboo Park. Especially the rich hot spring resources make Xianning outstanding at home and abroad. It is worthy of the name “the Wonderland on Earth” .At present, Biguiyuan Group, Sanjiang Space Group, China Travel Group and other large enterprises have invested about 20 billion yuan in Xianning. A world-class tourist leisure city will be emerging,with a great taste and distinctive features.
Xianning is a civilized and harmonious city for running enterprises. In recent years, the Party Committee and the Government of the city have put greater efforts to strengthen the construction of infrastructure. The infrastructure and supporting facilities of water, electricity, road, communication, gas, transportation have been improved greatly. The service functions of education, health, sports have gradually become perfect. The government has improved and optimized the investment environment to create"lawful Xianning ", "efficient Xianning", "peaceful Xianning" and "credible Xianning" and to provide investors with high quality and efficient administrative environment, normative and orderly marketing environment, trustworthy human environment,
comfortable and convenient living environment, and a stable harmonious social environment. Xianning has been awarded as "the A-level Credible City" for six consecutive years in the province. The city has sufficient water and electricity supply and low-cost land. The price of industrial land is the lowest and the reserves is the largest among the eleven regions in Hubei. There are 2 universities,48 secondary schools and vocational technology schools, with nearly 30000 graduates every year, in addition to many universities in Wuhan City nearby. Xianning is rich in human resources. It has unprecedented good business environment.
Xianning is a newly emerging city full of vitality .Since 30 years of reform and opening, especially in the last few years, the Party Committee and the Government of the city adhere to the scientific concept of development to guide the overall situation, to seize the major opportunities of the coastal industrial transfer and the construction of Wuhan city circle to strive to develop economy. Therefore the economic society maintains a sound momentum of sustained, rapid and healthy development. The major economic indexes have increased at double-digit growth rate above the average level of the province. During Jan-November of 2008, among the above-town-level areas of Xianning, the fixed asset investment grew by 55.3%.The retail sales of consumer goods increased by 29.6%.The local general budgetary revenue increased by 28.8%, of which the local tax revenue grew by 34%. The whole growth rate was in the front ranks of Hubei. It’s predicted that the GDP will increase by 16.5%. The scaled industrial added value will increase by 30%. The investment in fixed assets will increase by 33.3%. The local general budgetary revenue will increase by 34%.The urban residents per capita disposable income will increase by 15%,and the rural per capita net income will increase by 17.9%.At present, the pillar industry based on electric power, textile, papermaking, metallurgy and building materials industry, electrical manufacturing, food and beverage is thriving. The modern characteristic agriculture based on bamboo, tea, osmanthus, ramie, seedlings, vegetables, kiwis, pigs, fruit and thunder bamboo is developing rapidly. The modern service industry based on leisure tourism, finance and insurance, business logistics, consulting and real estate is on booming. The US Sedan air compressors, France Volcker medical equipment, South Korea Yujin auto parts, Thailand Red Bull drinks, Hongkong Huarun electric power, Taiwan Jinmailang drinks, Guangdong Biguiyuan Estate, Shandong Chenming Paper and a number of domestic and foreign well-known enterprises in Xianning have invested and started projects. On the list of new major items which are expected to start in Hubei before the end of 2009, Xianning has 110 items on the list, accounting for 11.4% of the province. The total investment reaches 69.66 billion yuan, accounting for 9.6% of the province. Xianning has entered a new stage of rapid development. Currently, Xianning is facing the best opportunity of development in history because of the policies that Xianning is a "two- type society" comprehensive reform pilot area and that it is the pilot city for studying and practicing the scientific outlook on development determined by the Central Committee of CPC and the Party Committee of Hubei Province. Shortly after the city’s 3rd Session of the 5th Plenary Conference, the city Party Committee made a strategic decision to accelerate the construction of economic strong city in South Hubei. By 2015, the city’s GDP will reach the target of 100 billion yuan. The local finance income will reach 10 billion yuan. The population of the central city will account for 1 million. The area of the central city will reach 100 square kilometers. Per capita net income of the rural areas will achieve more than 10000 yuan. Energy saving and emission reduction will be better than the provincial indexes. The economic gross amount will rank a higher place in the province. The per capita level in Wuhan city circle and Exianggan border area will be in the leading position. Xianning will have a brilliant future.
Warmly welcome friends and guests at home and abroad to relax,to travel ,to start business and to invest in Xianning !
Climate and geography
Xianning City is under the jurisdiction of Hubei Province, known as "the South Gate of Hubei", with the reputation of "the land of sweet-scented osmanthus, bamboo, tea, ramie, hot springs ".Located in the southeast of Hubei Province, it stretches from 113°32’to 114°58’east of longitude and from 29°02’to 30°19' north of latitude, with its east to the north of Jiangxi, south to Hunan, west facing Jingchu and north to Wuhan. It has a suitable geographic location and convenient transportation. Across the territory, the 138-kilometer-long golden waterway of the Yangtze River flows to the east. The Beijing-Guangzhou Railway, State Road 106 and 107, Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway go through Xianning from north to south. Xianning covers an area of 9861 square kilometers, administering one district, four counties, one city and one province-level development zone. That is Chibi City famous for its "Three Kingdoms",Xian’an District famous for its culture of XiangYanghu Lake,Chongyang County famous for its Shang dynasty bronze drums, Jiayu County famous as “the Land of Fish and Rice”,Tongcheng County famous for many merchants and business, Tongshan County famous for its Mount Jiugong.
Xianning is located to the south bank of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and the north of Mufu Mountain. The geographic tectonic lies in 3 four-grade tectonic units such as Lianzihu sag (II3)of Daye fold belt(II 3)of lower Yangtze platform(II3) at the east end of the Yangtze paraplatform (II4), Xianning platformal fold bundle (II 3) and Tongshan platformal fold bundle (II 4)of Mufu sag(II 4). The region is exposed with the Proterozoic to Cenozoic strata. The magmatic activities focus on the area of Jiugongshan in Tongshan. As the result of crustal movement, the folds and faults developed to form the present landscape. It is high in the north, low in the south and divided into 3 landform areas: the area of Jianghanhu alluvial plains , located in the northwestern part, is the large area from Cha’anling in Chibi City to the north of Shuangxi in Xian’an District. The low-lying hilly area from Damu Mountain to Yu Mountain, located in the center, is the large region to the north of Gaohu Lake and Shadian in Tongshan County, and to the south from Cha’anling to Shuangxi. The area of mid-height mountains with Mufu Mountain erosion structure, is located to the south from Gaohu Lake to Shadian in Tongshan
Xianning has a subtropical monsoon climate, with an annual average rainfall of 1577.4mm, an annual average sunshine time of 1754.5 hours, an annual average temperature of 16.8℃, and an annual average frost-free period of 245-258 days. It has a mild climate, abundant rainfall, enough sunshine, a long frost-free period and four distinct seasons. Northerly winds prevail in winter, cold and dry; while southerly winds in summer, hot and rainy. The highest temperature is 41.4℃, and the lowest temperature is minus 15.4℃. The main disastrous weather usually refers to cold spell in early spring, rainstorm, flood, and drought.
Land and mineral resources in Xianning. Xianning City lies in the transition zone from Mufu Mountains to the Jianghan Plains. Its terrain is high in the southeast and low in the northwest, formed with mountains, hillocks and plains, among which mountainous and hilly areas accounts for 60%, water areas accounts for 10%,culticated land accounts for 20%,and resident areas accounts for 10%.The total land area of the city comes up to 9861 square kilometers, of which the total arable land area accounts for 2.917000 million mu. The per capita cultivated land is only 1.05 mu (Statistical data is 0.79 acres), lower than the national average level of 1.55 mu. The provincial per capita level of 1.25 mu. The prominent conflict of more people and less land indicates the present land situation of the city. It seems particularly important to make rational use of land resources and protect arable land.
Non-metallic mineral is the main mineral resources in Xianning and metal mineral is the second. Xianning is short of energy, hydrosphere mineral. 37 kinds of minerals have been discovered, 18 kinds of which have been identified the resources reserves, including 2 kinds of energy minerals , 8 kinds of metal minerals, 7 kinds of non-metallic minerals and a kind of mineral water .The city has 11 kinds of mineral resources reserves ranking the top five of the province. Among them, magnesium, antimony monazite, tantalum and geothermal rank first in the province. Gold, niobium and metallurgical dolomite oak rank second. Coal, vanadium and manganese rank fourth.
Water resources in Xianning.Xianning has rich water resources, with an annual average rainfall of 1325.2mm, converted into the water amount of 13 billion ?, relatively 7.2% less than that of the previous year and 13.5% less than that of many years. The total water resources of the city is 65.84 billion ?, relatively 7.2% less than that of the previous year and 20.3% less than that of many years. The amount of surface water resources accounts for 63.76 billion ? and groundwater resources accounts for 15.77 billion ?.The surface water and groundwater resources is repeatedly measured by 13.69 billion ?.The per capita amount of water resources is 2379? and the per mu average amount of water resources is 3174? in the city. The total water consumption of the whole city is 13.3798 billion ?, of which water consumption for producing covers 12.3576 billion ?, accounting for 92.36%; household water consumption covers 101900000 ?,accounting for 7.62%; the water consumption for ecology and environment covers 320000 ?, accounting for 0.02%.The city's per capita water consumption is 484?, the water consumption of 10000-yuan GDP is 656?, the water consumption of 10000-yuan industrial added value is 330?, and per mu average water consumption for farming irrigation is 635?.
In the early days of New China, there used to be 115 large or small lakes of different sizes. The lake area with the normal water level is 488 square kilometers. Due to human factors of encroachment and other reasons, at present the city has only 19 lakes with the size of more than 500 mu and 5 big lakes with the size of 10000 mu. The lake area covers 206.4 square kilometers.
The city has numerous rivers with large falls and it is rich in hydropower resources. The theoretical hydropower resources potential in the rivers reaches 311084 KW, of which 241057 KW is available for development.
Forest resources in Xianning. The total land area of the whole city accumulates 981494 hectares, of which terrestrial area cavers 905655 hectares, accounting for 92.27% of the land area. Among the terrestrial area, the forest area is 561286 hectares, accounting for 61.98% of the land area; the wasteland area covers 16375 hectares, accounting for 1.81% of the land area and the difficult-to-be-used land area covers 7302 hectares, accounting for 0.81% of the land area.
Among the forest land area of the city, the forest area covers 411095 hectares, accounting for 73.24%.The sparse forest area covers 8563 hectares, accounting for 1.53%.The bush forest area covers 91110 hectares, occupying 16.23%.The non-stumpage forest area covers 47452 hectares, occupying 8.45%.The seedling area covers 3067 hectares, occupying 0.05%.
Among the forest area: the coniferous forest, broad-leaf forest, coniferous and broad-leaf mixed forest cover a total area of 308238 hectares, accounting for 74.98%;the bamboo forest covers 102475 hectares, accounting for 24.93% and the intercrop forest covers 382 hectares, accounting for 0.10%.
The city has 8.768293 million cubic meters of active timber reserves, among which the forest reserves is 8.302520 million cubic meters, accounting for 94.69%;the sparse forest reserves is 45516? , accounting for 0.53%; the scattered wood is 135271?, accounting for 1.54%; the odd tree reserves is 283795?, accounting for 3.24%.
The forest coverage rate reaches 52.3%.
The south of Xianning City subordinates the ranges of Mufu Mountains with the height of less than 1500 meters above sea level. The highest peak--Laoyajian is 1656 meters above sea level. The height of the mountains is normally from 200 to 800 meters. The northern part belongs to the Jianghan Plains, with an elevation of 20-50 meters. The subtropical evergreen broad-leaf forest is of representational zonal vegetation. The tree species resources is rich and of great variety. The communities of main plants are classified as:
Evergreen broad-leaf forest: They are mainly distributed in the regions of low hills with the height of less than 500 meters above sea level. The castanopsis, cinnamomum camphor, castanopsis eyrei are the representative tree species of the community. In the forest, there are scattered trees like the long-leaf lithocarpus glabra, holly,costanopsis lamontii,camellia,photinia fraseri, castanopsis fargesii, purpus privet, S.castanopsis carlesii, ternstroemia gymmanthera sprague and so on.
Deciduous broad-leaf forest: They are mainly distributed in the belts at the height of 1200-1500 meters above sea level. The representative tree species are quercus glandulifera,castanopsis chinensis, gentian,dyetree, platycarya, prunus, dalbergia and so on.
Evergreen, deciduous broad-leaf mixed forest: They are mainly in the regions at the height of 500-1100 meters above sea level. Its representative species are castanopsis eyrei, quercus varibilis, cyclobalanopsis glauca, ternstroemia gymmanthera, acer davidii, lithocarpus glaber, quercus fabri,daphniphylum glaucescens,liquidambar formosana, dalbergia hupeana, wild jujube, aphananthe aspera, poliothyrsis sinensis, albizia kalkora, quercus glandulifera, platycarya strobilacea,chestnut, Evodia fargesii Dode and so on.
Coniferous forest: The representative tree species are P. taiwanensis Hsia and Chinese pine at the height of 800 meters above sea level. Below 800 meters, the representative tree species are masson pine,cedar and fir. The fir is the main tree species for afforestation in the south of Hubei, most of which are artificial forests. Natural forests only grow at Jiugongshan Mountain and Panqiu in Tongshan County and a few scattered at Huanglong Mountain in Tongcheng.
Bamboo forest: Xianning is rich in bamboo resources. There are 17 genera and 123 species of bamboo, of which phyllostachys pubescens are the main resources, and then thunder bamboo. The pubescens forests are distributed at the area of 100-1100 meters above sea level, consisting mainly of bamboo forests and some mixed types of pines, firs and broad-leaved trees. The thunder bamboo is mainly distributed in Chongyang.In recent years, Chongyang is committed to creating a large county of thunder bamboo and thunder bamboo industry has developed rapidly. Now the scale has come up to 3333 hectares. In addition, a small amount of phyllostachys pubescens,sinocalamus affinis mcclure, spotted cane,phyllostachys sulphurea,phyllostachys makinol and other varieties of bamboo are distributed throughout the whole region.
According to the 1989 census of Xianning land and resources, there are a total of 112 families, 354 genera, 1114 species and 54 variants of bamboo.
The main timber tree species are fir, pinus massoniana, bamboo,castanopsis,cedar,oak, poplar,castanopsis,liquidambar formosana, sassafras, jujube, Chinese toona, robinia pseudoacacia, paulownia fortunei, camphor .
The main economic forest tree species are tea, osmanthus, camellia, thunder bamboo, Chinese toona, vernicia foedii, citrus,sapium sebiferum, palm, chestnut, peach, plum, eucommia ulmoides,Magnolia officinalis, pear, persimmon, jujube, toxicodendron verniciflnum.
Main greening tree species are sycamore, camphor, cypress, viburnum awabuki, magnolia, cedar, W.longifolia, buxussinica Cheng.
Rare tree species: The first-level protected tree species are taxus mairel, bretschneidera sinensis and so on. The second-level protected tree species are cephalotaxus,bretschneidera sinensis hemsl cephalotaxus oliveri mast, emmenopterys henryioliv, eucommia, ginkgo biloba, walnut,liriodendron polygonatum, Pseudolarix kaempferi, Sinojackia xylocarpa and so on.The third-level protected tree species are dipteronia sinensis, magnolia cylindrica wils, magnolia, magnolia officinalis, ormasia hosiei, phoebe bournei, phoebe Zhennan, wingceltis, sorbus amabilis, bauhinia,Eupatorium,toona sureni, tapiscia sinensis and so on.
Introduced tree species have 50 families, 101 genera, 294 species and 9 varieties.Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Taiwania cryptomerioides, taxodium ascendens, bald cypress,glyptostrobus pensilis, slash pine,pinus taeda, long-leaf pine, short-leaf pine, douglas fir, pinus rigida,abies firma,juniper bush,chamaecyparis obtusa,fokienia hodginsii,cupressus lusitanica,chamaecyparis obtusa filicoides, cupressus arizonica greene, cupressus torulosa,thuja standishii linn,thuja occidentalis,podocarpus nagi,P.macrophllus,cycas revoluta,manglietia patungensis, manglietia insignis, manglietia chingii,magnoliaceae,magnoliacylindrica,magnolia amoena,ormosia henryi,michelia maudiea,michelia platypetala, michelia chapensis,michelia foveolata,tsoongiodendron odorum,cinnamomum caudiferum and so on. But leucaena leucocephala, acacia mearnsii, ficus
microcarpa eucalyptus robusta, eucalyptus camaldulensis, acacia confusa, araucaria and hippophae rhamnoides are not suitable to be planted
Ancient, large, odd tree species: The completely well-preserved ancient, large, strange trees have 27 families, 43 genera, 57 varieties, with a total of 226 strains
There are more than 450 species of shrubs and nearly 500 kinds of wild medicinal plants in the city. More than 10 kinds of wild medicinal plants can be easily found such as gyrophora, seven-leaf flower, panax japonicus, agalloch eaglewood, pubscent angelica, Changium smyrnioides,tasparagusrhizoma polygonati and figwort root. There are dozens of flower breeds.They are mainly peony,cockscomb,gegonia,lotus,
Chrysanthemum, black orchid, hibiscus, bahinia, jasmine, tuberose, azalea magnolia, plum, rose, oleande, nandina domestica thumb and so on.
[The administrative divisions of Xianning ]
Xianning city is located in the southeast of Hubei Province, to the south bank of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. It is the confluence of Hubei, Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces. It is an important passage to go through the south and north and has the reputation of "the South Gate of Hubei". The East of the city is to Yangxin County in Huangshi City. The south is at the junction of Xiushui County in Jingxi Province and Pingjiang County in Hunan Province. The west is connected with Linxiang City in Hunan Province, and the north is facing Honghu City in Jingzhou City along the river, next to Jiangxia District of Wuhan City, Ezhou City and Daye City. The land area of Xianning is 9861 square kilometers. Xianning City People's Government is situated in Wenquan Economic and Technological Development Zone.
Under the jurisdiction of Xianning City, there are four counties, one city and one district. They are Jiayu County, Tongcheng County, Chongyang County, Tongshan County, Chibi City and Xian’an District, with a total of 12 townships, 51 towns, 6 offices, administering 1049 villager committees, 10145 villager groups.
Under the jurisdiction of Xian’an, there are nine towns including Tingsiqiao,Guanbuqiao,Shuangxiqiao,Henggouqiao,Heshengqiao,Maqiao,Gaoqiao,Xiangyanghu and Guihua three offices including Fushan, Yongan and Wenquan and one township named Damu. Jiayu County administers eight towns including Luxi,Tieling,Guanqiao,Yuyue,Xinjie,
Dupu,Panjiawan and Paizhouwan.Chibi City administers nine towns including Zhaoliqiao, Xindian,Zhonghuopu,Guantangyi,Cha’anling,Chibi, Liushanhu,Shenshan and Chepu.There are three offices like Chimagang, Puqi and Lushuihu, and one township named Yujiaqiao. Tongcheng Countya dministers nine towns including Maishi, Tanghu, Guandao, Wuli, Magang, Junshui,Shadui,Shinan and Beigang.There are two townships like Sizhuang and Daping.Under the jurisdiction of Chongyang County, there are eight towns including Shaping, Shicheng, Guihuaquan, Tiancheng, Qingshan,Lukou, Baini and Jintang. There are four townships such as Xiaoling, Tongzhong,Gangkou and Gaoyan.Under the jurisdiction of Tongshan County,there are eight towns including Tongyang, Nanlinqiao,Huanshapu, Xiapu,Chuangwang, Honggang，Jiugongshan and
Dafan. There are four townships such as Dalu, Yangfanglin, Cikou and Yanxia.
The historical evolution of Xianning
The administrative system of Xianning City (prefecture-level city) began very late. Across the territory, each county, city or district has a long history.It belonged to Jingchu in Xia and Shang dynasty. In Qin dynasty, it belonged to Nanjun County. In Han dynasty, it belonged to Jianxia County. At the end of East Han dynasty, it belonged to East Wu. In Huangwu second year (AD 223 years) of Wu dynasty, Puqi County was set (now Chibi City).In Dali third year (AD 768 years) of Tang Dynasty,Yongan was set and in Baoda thirteenth year (AD 955 years) of South Tang dynasty, Yongan was promoted as Yongan County. In Jingde fourth year (AD 1007) of Songzhenzong period, it was renamed as Xianning County (now Xian’an District) according to “Yi-ching” with “Yongan” having the synonymic meaning of “the universal Xianning”,in order to avoid the Emperor Songtaizu’s Yongan Mausoleum in the same dialect. In Baoda eleventh year (AD 953 years) of South Tang dynasty, Jiayu County was set. In Qiande second year (AD 964 years) of North Song dynasty, Tongshan County was set. In Kaibao eighth year (AD 975 years) of North Song dynasty, Chongyang County was set. In Xining fifth year (1072 AD) of the North Song dynasty, Tongcheng County was set. In Yuan dynasty, the region of Xianning belonged to Wuchang Road of Huguang Province. In Ming and Qing dynasties, it belonged to Wuchang Prefecture. During the period of Minguo, it first belonged to Jianghan Avenue,and then belonged to the First Administrative Supervision District of Hubei Province. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, it was attached to Daye Prefecture and Xiaogan Prefecture. In August of 1965, Xianning Special Area was established. Under the jurisdiction of Xianning, there were nine counties including Xianning, Jiayu, Tongshan,
Puqi, Tongcheng,Chongyang,Yangxin,Echeng and Wuchang.Xianning Special Area was renamed as Xianning Prefecture in 1970.In 1975 Wuchang County was removed from Xianning to Wuhan City, and in 1979 Echeng County was removed from Xianning to Huanggang Prefecture. In August of 1983, Xianning County was revoked and Xianning City (county-level city) was established. In June of 1986, Puqi County was revoked and Puqi City (county-level city) was established. In October of 1998, Puqi City was renamed as Chibi City. Yangxin County was removed from Xianning City to Huangshi City in 1997.
In December of 1998, approved by the State Council, Xianning Prefecture was revoked and prefecture-level Xianning City was established. At the same time, the original Xianning City (county-level city) was revoked and Xian’an District was established.