Xianning locates in the transitive zone from Mufu mountains to the Jianghan Plain. Topographically, it's high in the southeast and low in the northwest, containing mountain land, hilly areas, upland field and plains, featured by highlands in its majority with limited water resources and farmlands. Xianning covers a total land area of 9,861 km2, of which the arable land area is 2.917 million mus (1 acre = 6.07 mus), per capita arable land area is 1.05 mus (statistical data is 0.79 mus), lower than the national level 1.55 mus per capita and 1.25 mus per capita of Hubei Province. Large population and little land which result in contradictions between people and land is the reality of Xianning. Therefore, making good use of land especially protecting the arable land seems particularly important.
The mineral resources of Xianning is mainly nonmetallic minerals, followed by metal minerals, then the energy minerals and moisture minerals. Herein the city, 37 kinds of minerals have been found, of which 18 kinds have been identified resource reserves, including 2 kinds of energy minerals, 8 kinds of metal minerals, 7 kinds of nonmetallic minerals and 1 kind of mineral water. The reserves of 11 kinds of mineral resources in the city have ranked in the top 5 of Hubei Province. Among them, the reserves of magnesium, antimony, monazite, tantalum and geothermal rank first in the province. gold, niobium,dolomite rank the second largest, and coal, manganese and vanadium rank the fourth.